现代大学英语第二册精读单词

发布时间:2021-12-09 03:36:21

大学精读第二册
第一单元
accomplishment n. the act of finishing sth. completely and successfully; achievement acquire v. to gain; to get for oneself by one's own work arrogantly adv. behaving in a proud and self-important way aspirin n. 阿司匹林(解热镇痛药) assume v. to take as a fact; to suppose available adj. able to be used or easily found bachelor n. ~'s degree: the first university degree beanpole n. (informal) a very tall and thin person bull n. a male cow certify v. to state that sth. is true or correct, esp. after some kind of test civilized adj. educated and refined; having an advanced culture client n. a person who pays for help or advice from a person or organization continuity n. the state of being continuous cyanide n. 氰化物 democratic adj. based on the idea that everyone should have equal rights and should be involved in making important decisions 民主的 disaster n. a sudden event such as a flood, storm, or accident which causes great damage or suffering. Here: a complete failure drugstore n. (AmE) a shop which sells medicine (and a variety of other things) enroll v. to officially arrange to join a school or university expertise n. skill in a particular field expose v. to enable sb. to see or experience new things or learn about new beliefs, ideas, etc. faculty n. (AmE) all the teachers of a university or college fragment n. a small piece of sth. generate v. to produce grind v. to crush into small pieces or powder by pressing between hard surfaces hip n. the fleshy part of either side of the human body above the legs humanity n. the qualities of being human implicitly adv. in an implied way 含蓄地 inevitable adj. certain to happen and impossible to avoid literal adj. in the basic meaning of a word maintain v. to continue to have as before Neanderthal n. an early type of human being who lived in Europe during the Stone Age nevertheless adv. in spite of that; yet peculiar adj. belonging only to a particular person; special; odd penetrating adj. showing the ability to understand things clearly and deeply pest n. (informal) an annoying person pharmacy n. a shop where medicines are prepared and sold. Here: the study of preparing drugs or medicines philosophy n. the study of the nature and meaning of existence, reality, etc. 哲学 pill n. a small solid piece of medicine that you swallow whole

preside v. to lead; to be in charge professional adj. relating to the work that a person does for an occupation, esp. work that requires special training pursuit n. the act of trying to achieve sth. in a determined way push-button adj. using computers or electronic equipment rather than traditional methods qualified adj. having suitable knowledge or experience for a particular job rear v. to care for a person or an animal until they are fully grown resources n. possessions in the form of wealth, property, skills, etc. that you have 资源 savage n. an uncivilized human being scroll n. Here: a certificate of an academic degree semester n. one of the two periods into which the year is divided in American high schools and universities (=term in BrE) sensitive adj. able to understand or appreciate art, music or literature shudder v. to shake uncontrollably for a moment specialize v. to limit all or most of one's study to particular subjects 专修 species n. (informal) a type; a sort specimen n. Here: a person who is unusual in some way and has a quality of a particular kind spiritual adj. related to your spirit rather than to your body or mind store v. to keep suffice v. to be enough Aristotle 亚里士多德 Bach 巴赫 Chaucer 乔叟 Dante 但丁 Einstein 爱因斯坦 Hamlet 哈姆雷特 Homer 荷马 La Rochefoucauld 拉罗什富科 Shakespeare 莎士比亚 Virgil 维吉尔

第二单元
alert adj. watchful and ready to meet danger birch n. 桦树 bough n. a main branch of a tree cabin n. a small roughly built house chase v. to drive away; to cause to leave creek n. a long narrow stream crouch v. to lower the body close to the ground by bending the knees and back cub n. a young meat-eating wild animal like bear, lion, tiger, wolf, etc. detain v. to keep sb. from leaving during a certain time dim v. to become less bright doc n. (informal AmE) a doctor drift v. to be driven along by wind flake n. a very small flat thin piece that breaks away easily from sth. else; snow ~: 雪花 grasshopper n. 蚱蜢 howl n. a long loud cry, esp. made by wolves as in pain, anger, etc. leap v. to jump high into the air lick v. to move the tongue across the surface of sth. in order to eat it or clean it mantle n. a loose outer sleeveless garment. Here it is used figuratively. meadow n. a field with wild grass and flowers

mischievous adj. eager to have fun by playing harmless tricks muzzle n. the nose and mouth of an animal such as a dog, a wolf or a horse numb adj. unable to feel anything because of coldness pace n. a single step in running or walking partner n. sb. who does the same activity with you 伙伴 paw n. an animal's foot that has nails or claws pierce v. to make a hole in or through (sth.) using sth. with a sharp point pine n. 松树 poke v. to push or move sth. through a space or opening puppy n. a young dog ("puppy-wool" here refers to the wool of the wolf cub) realize v. to understand restless adj. unwilling or unable to stay quiet and still rifle n. a type of gun fired from the shoulder rocket n. 火箭 rooster n. (AmE) a cock rumble n. a deep continuous rolling sound shack n. a small and not very strong building shiver v. to shake, esp. from cold or fear slash v. to make a long deep cut with sth. sharp like a knife smother v. to cover thickly snarl n. a low angry sound while showing the teeth soaked adj. very wet with some liquid spear v. 用鱼叉刺 spurt v. to come out quickly and suddenly in a thin, powerful stream squat v. to sit with your knees bent under you, your bottom off the ground, and balancing on your feet 蹲;蹲坐 squirrel n. a small animal with a long furry tail that climbs trees and eats nuts 松鼠 stir v. to move slightly thicken v. to become thicker thrill v. to feel very happy and excited toll n. to take a ~: to have a very bad effect on sb. or sth. trapper n. a person who catches wild animals for their fur unchained adj. without a chain whimper v. to make low crying sounds wiggle v. (infml) to move in small movements from side to side, or up and down wolf n. a wild animal that looks like a large dog and lives and hunts in groups wool n. the soft thick hair of sheep and some goats (Here it refers to the hair of the wolf.)

第三单元
approval n. official permission bond n. a written document in which a government or company promises to pay back money that it has borrowed, often with interest 债券 certainty n. the state of being certain commit v. to do sth. wrong or illegal

contribution n. sth. you say or do in order to help make sth. successful 贡献 convict v. to find sb. guilty of a crime, esp. in a court of law n. a person who has been found guilty of a crime and sent to prison costly adj. having a high price; expensive court n. a place where legal matters are decided by a judge and jury current adj. belonging to the present time decade n. a period of 10 years deter v. to discourage; to persuade sb. not to do sth., by making him realize it will be difficult or will have unpleasant results dismiss v. to ~ a court case: to stop a court case before a result is reached elite adj. considered to be the best of their kind 属于精英的,最好的 estimate n. a calculation of a quantity or number 估计 evidence n. the information used in a court of law to try to prove sth. execute v. to kill sb. as a lawful punishment for a serious crime feasible adj. able to be carried out or done feature n. a typical part or quality illustrate v. to show sth. by giving related examples imprison v. to put in prison inmate n. one who is kept in a prison maximum adj. the largest number or amount nonetheless adv. in spite of that; yet; nevertheless nontraffic adj. not related to traffic observation n. what one has noticed offender n. sb. who is guilty of a crime; a criminal offense n. an illegal action or a crime per prep. for each personnel n. all the people employed in a particular organization precisely adv. exactly prior adj. happening before property n. belongings; possessions prosecute v. to bring a criminal charge against sb. in a court of law rate n. the speed at which sth. happens over a period of time reality n. the real situation; the real state of affairs reject v. to refuse to accept Saudi Arabia 沙特阿拉伯 severity n. the state of being severe social adj. relating to society solution n. a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation statistics n. facts shown in numbers teenage adj. aged between 13 and 19 theft n. the crime of stealing tough adj. determined and strict victim n. a person who suffers as a result of other people's criminal actions, etc. violence n. the use of force to hurt other people physically

voter n. a person who has the legal right to vote, esp. in a political election witness n. a person who tells in a court of law what he saw or what he knows about a crime Alcatraz 阿尔卡特拉兹(美国圣弗兰西斯科湾——即旧金山湾——的小岛,1933—1963 年为一座联 邦监狱所在地。 )

第四单元
beneath prep. (fml) below; directly under bloom v. to come into flowers breast n. Here:the front part of a bird's body bride n. a woman about to be married, or just married bridegroom n. a man about to be married, or just married bubble v. to make the sound like water boiling 发出汩汩的流水声 bud n. a young tightly rolled-up flower (or leaf) before it opens 花蕾;芽 butterfly n. 蝴蝶 chamberlain n. an important official in charge of housekeeping affairs in a king's court 内侍总管 chill v. to make sb. or sth. very cold coral n. 珊瑚 crimson adj. having a deep purplish red colour crystal n. a transparent natural mineral that looks like ice 水晶 cynic n. a person who sees little or no good in anything and shows this by making unkind and unfair remarks about people or things daffodil n. 水仙花 daisy n. 雏菊 delicate adj. finely made; needing careful handling dove n. a kind of small pigeon (鸽子) used as a sign of peace ebb v. to flow away from the shore; to gradually decrease ecstasy n. a very strong feeling of joy and happiness emerald n. a bright green precious stone 绿宝石 fling (flung, flung) v. to move (oneself) quickly with a lot of force flush n. a red appearance of the face flutter v. to move (the wings) quickly and lightly up and down foam n. 泡沫 frost n. ice that looks white and powdery and covers things outside when the temperature is very low frown v. to move one's eyebrows together to show disapproval girdle n. 女用腰带 grove n. a small group of trees in a garden gutter n. a channel at the edge of a road next to the pavement where water collects and flows away harp n. a large musical instrument with strings 竖琴 instrument n. musical ~: an object which is used for producing music jewel n. a precious stone

lizard n. 蜥蜴 mermaiden (usu. mermaid) n. a woman in stories who has a fish's tail instead of legs musician n. a person who plays on a musical instrument very well or as a job nest n. a hollow place built or found by a bird as its home to hold its eggs in nightingale n. a small bird that sings beautifully, esp. at night nip v. to take off; to keep sth. from growing or development opal n. a precious stone which looks like milky water with colours in it 蛋白石 outright adv. completely and at once pang n. a sudden sharp pain petal n. leaflike divisions of a flower 花瓣 pluck v. to pick prince n. the son of a king or queen ruby n. a red jewel 红宝石 sincerity n. the quality of being honest and true soar v. to fly high up in the sky soul n. the heart where people's deepest thoughts and feelings come from stringed adj. ~ instrument: a musical instrument with one or more strings 弦乐器 sunbeam n. a ray of sunlight sun-dial n. an instrument used esp. in former times which shows the time according to where the shadow of a pointed metal falls when the sun shines on it 日规;日晷(仪) thorn n. sharp pointed growth on a plant 刺;棘 tomb n. a grave; the place in the ground where a dead person is buried topmost adj. highest vein n. a tube that carries blood from any part of the body to the heart violin n. a musical instrument 小提琴 wretched adj. very unhappy

第五单元
alcohol n. the pure colourless liquid present in wine or beer that can make one drunk, often used for medical purposes to clean things blur v. to make difficult to see clearly brow n. Here: eyebrow 眉毛 considerate adj. thoughtful of the rights or feelings of others cover n. a piece of material, a cloth used on a bed to make it warmer; the ~ s: 毯子;被子 dab v. to touch lightly or gently several times demonstrate v. to show clearly draining-board n. a sloping board next to the kitchen sink on which wet dishes are put to dry greasy adj. covered with oil or fat imply v. to suggest that sth. is true without saying this directly indifference n. lack of interest or concern mop v. to clean with a mop (*眩 nozzle n. a short tube fitted to the end of a pipe to control or direct the stream of liquid 喷嘴 pinch v. to press tightly between-finger and thumb ~ one's brows together: to frown

plunge v. to move suddenly forwards or downwards racist n. a person who believes that people of his own race are better than others refrigerator n. an icebox in which food or drinks can be kept at a low temperature relax v. to feel calm and comfortable and stop worrying rinse v. to wash sth. in clean water so as to take away soap rummage v. to turn things over and look into all the corners while trying to find sth. shallow adj. of little depth; opposite of "deep" silverware n. things made of silver such as knives, forks and spoons sink n. a large open container in a kitchen that you can fill with water and use for washing dishes, etc. snap v. to say angrily; to move suddenly spray v. to force out liquid in small drops under pressure squeeze v. to press firmly inwards or from the opposite side 挤 stupid adj. silly or foolish thoroughly adv. completely unattached adj. not married or engaged; still single undress v. to take one's clothes off wrist n. the joint between the hand and the lower part of the arm

第六单元
acknowledge v. to recognize; to admit admirable adj. worthy of admiration aesthetic adj. concerning beauty, esp. beauty in art anonymity n. the state of not having one's name or identity known to others balding adj. becoming bald behave v. to do things in a particular way behavior n. the way someone behaves blast n. an unexpected quick strong movement of wind or air budget n. a plan of how a government will spend the money that is available in a particular period of time 预算 capacity n. ability to do sth. casualty n. sb. who is hurt or killed in an accident challenge v. to defy 藐视;在……面前毫无畏惧,以挑战姿态面对…… chaotic adj. in a state of complete disorder and confusion chunk n. (infml) a fairly large amount of clash n. a loud sound made by two metal objects being hit together classic adj. important and special collision n. an accident in which two or more people or vehicles hit each other while moving in different directions; in ~ : in conflict commitment n. a responsibility; a determination to do what one considers to be his duty conclusion n. the end; the closing part congressional adj. related to a congress, the elected law-making body of certain countries 国会的 dip v. to put into liquid (液体) for a moment and then take out distinction n. difference

doze v. sleep lightly emotional adj. making people have strong feelings employee n. a person who is employed essential adj. being central or most important Florida n. 佛罗里达州(U. S.) flotation n. ~ ring: 救生圈 freeze v. to cause water to harden into ice as a result of great cold gasp v. to breathe quickly with difficulty, making a sudden noise grope v. to try to find sth. that you cannot see by feeling with your hands gull n. a large common black and white sea bird that lives near the sea harsh adj. unpleasant or cruel (words) helicopter n. 直升飞机 immovable adj. impossible to move, change, or persuade impact n. the force of one object striking or hitting another injured adj. having an injury; having been physically damaged or hurt jet n. an airplane driven by a jet engine likewise adv. in the same way monument n. a building or sth. that preserves the memory of a person or event possibility n. sth. that is possible Potomac n. 波托马克河 (U. S.) presidential adj. concerning a president proof n. sth. that proves that sth. is true remark n. a spoken or written opinion slap n. a quick blow with the flat part of the hand, used figuratively here standoff n. a situation in which neither side in a fight can gain an advantage stewardess n. a woman who serves passengers on a plane stunning adj. shocking; very impressive survivor n. a person who has continued to live, esp. in spite of having been nearly destroyed or killed thus adv. in this way; so, therefore totally adv. completely tragedy n. a terrible, unfortunate event unique adj. being the only one of its type Washington n. 华盛顿 (capital of U.S.)

第七单元
alter v. to become different appeal v. to make a serious and urgent request to sb. for sth. n. a serious and urgent request to sb. for sth. artificial adj. made by people, not made of natural materials ashore adv. onto the shore * aspiration n. a strong desire to do sth. blade n. a long flat leaf of grass bribe n. money or sth. valuable given to sb. to persuade him to do sth. dishonest

brood v. to think for a long time about sth. you are upset or angry about Caribbean adj. 加勒比海的;the ~:加勒比海 cavalry n. (in former times) soldiers who fight on horseback deadly adj. likely to cause death dominate v. to have power or influence over sb. or sth. facility n. a special part of a piece of equipment or a system which makes it possible to do sth. folly n. (fml) foolishness germ n. a very small living thing which can make you ill glory n. great fame, praise and honour that people give sb. or sth. they admire very much grip v. to seize one's attention; to affect sb. very strongly; to hold sth. tightly idle adj. not working inspiration n. a sudden good idea about what you should do 灵感 intelligence n. (good) ability to learn and understand laboratory n. a building or room where a scientist works, with testing materials and equipment mastery n. complete control or power over minister n. a person who is in charge of a particular government department ministry n. a government department that deals with a particular area of administration within a country plague n. any disease causing death and spreading quickly to a large number of people 瘟疫 project n. a task of investigation in scholarship; a major undertaking involving money, personnel and equipment 项目 rival n. a person with whom one competes soothingly adv. in a way to make sb. feel less upset or angry splendor n. very impressive magnificence spread v. to make sth. cover a large area spur v. to urge sb. to try harder strip n. a narrow piece tale n. a story of imaginary events tavern n. a bar threat n. a statement that you will cause sb. pain, unhappiness or trouble threaten v. to make a statement that you will cause sb. pain, unhappiness or trouble if he does not do what you want tropics n. the hottest part of the earth warfare n. war activities wisdom n. the quality of being wise airily adv. not seriously, in a light-hearted way

第八单元
apron n. a piece of clothing that covers the front part of one's clothes and ties around one's waist, worn esp. when cooking to keep one's clothes clean bet v. (infml) to be sure bid v. to ~ farewell to sb.: to say goodbye to sb. bourgeois adj. typical of middle-class people; conventional

colony n. a country or area under the control of a more powerful country colonial adj. the adjective form of colony confess v. to admit convention n. generally accepted practice, esp. with regard to social behavior and attitudes crusade n. a struggle for the advancement of an idea, a principle, etc. crushed adj. Here: extremely upset or shocked divine adj. (infml) very very good earnest adj. determined and very serious enthusiastically adv. showing a lot of excitement and interest about sth. establish v. to find out facts that will prove that sth. is true exit v. to go out forehead n. the part of the face above the eyes and below the hair fuss v. to give too much attention to small, unimportant matters genteel adj. (fml or literary) respectable, well-bred girlishly adv. behaving like a girl gown n. (AmE) a long dress, esp. one worn on formal occasions grave n. tomb hastily adv. in a quick and hurried way ideally adv. in an ideal way investigate v. to try to find out the truth about sth. such as a scientific problem lap n. the front part of a seated person between the waist and the knees ma'am n. a spoken form, abbr. for "madam", (AmE) a polite way of addressing a woman maid w. a woman who works as a servant in a private house miserable adj. very sad, very unhappy mythology n. ancient myths in general 古代神话 naive adj. simple; childish; uneducated overseas adj. existing in a foreign country partially adv. not completely; partly permanent adj. intended to last for a long time or forever pompous adj. trying to make people think you are important, esp. by using very formal and important-sounding words positively adv. really, indeed primitive adj. belonging to the earliest period of development of life psychology n. the scientific study of the human mind and the reasons for people's behavior puzzled adj. confused and unable to understand sth. readjust v. to make a small change to sth. or to its position reprimand n. a severe official scolding respectable adj. showing or having socially acceptable standards of behavior shell-shocked adj. mentally ill because of the terrible experience of war shh int. used for asking for silence or less noise snoop v. to secretly look round a place in order to find out sb.'s private affairs speculatively adv. thoughtfully sternly adv. severely; seriously stifle v. to stop; to prevent from happening

sympathetically adv. in a way that shows sympathy or approval tribe n. a group of people of the same race who share the same customs, religion, language, etc., esp. of a fairly low level of civilization 部落 wander v. to move about (an area) without a clear direction or purpose weep v. to cry sadly wicked adj. behaving badly in an amusing way wriggle v. to twist and turn the body with quick movements

第九单元
advocate v. to support an idea or a plan amusement n. enjoyment antique adj. being old and therefore valuable bicentennial n. the day or year exactly 200 years after a particular event briefing n. information or instructions you get before you have to do sth.; here: news in brief (without details) cabinet n. a piece of furniture with doors, shelves or drawers for storing things carriage n. a wheeled vehicle, especially a private horse-drawn vehicle checkerboard n. 棋盘,方格图案 civil adj. of human society; a ~ war: a war between two parties of the same country compress v. to force into less space condense v. to put into a smaller or shortened form confederate adj. belonging to a political union of states; the C ~ army: the Southern army in the American Civil War convenience n. the condition of being suitable to one's needs and easy to reach defer v. to delay until a later date diet n. a limited range and amount of food you eat when you want to get thinner digest n. a short piece of writing that gives the most important facts from a book, report, etc. 文摘 Dutch adj. 荷兰的 eagle n. a very large strong meat-eating bird with a hooked beak and very good eyesight fax v. 发传真 featureless adj. uninteresting, without noticeable features gorgeous adj. (infml) very beautiful gratification n. satisfaction herd n. a group of animals of one kind which lives and feeds together iceberg n. a large piece of ice floating in the sea, most of which is below the surface ignore v. not to take notice of infect v. to pass on a disease to sb.; to corrupt interstate n. (AmE) a very wide road for long distance travel lane n. the two or three parallel areas on a main road which are divided by painted lines to keep fast and slow traffic apart 车道;the fast ~: the lane for going past other vehicles 快车道 linger v. to stay a little longer because you do not want to leave liposuction n. the removal of fat from sb's body by means of suction microwave n. 微波(炉) mph n. abbr. for miles per hour

outlet n. a shop through which products are sold; here: (工厂附设的)门市部 overnight adv. during the night; here: (infml) suddenly pastoral adj. typical of the simple peaceful life in the country; suitable for feeding sheep and cattle paycheck n. a salary check Pennsylvania n. 宾夕法尼亚州(US) Polaroid n. 商标名: “宝丽来” ,一次成像的照相机 pre-digest v. to make a book or article shorter and simpler for easy use refresh v. to make sb. feel less tired or less hot revitalize v. to put new strength and power into route n. the way from one place to another on a map salad n. a mixture of raw vegetables scenery n. natural surroundings in beautiful and open country screen n. the surface of a computer display 电脑屏幕 skim v. to move through (life) quickly, hardly touching the surface slide v. to pass by quietly without being noticed spicy adj. (food) having a pleasantly strong taste subtle adj. hardly noticeable unless you pay careful attention superficially adv. on the surface; not deeply or thoroughly supermarket n. a large shop where a customer can choose from a large number of different kinds of food or other goods symbolically adv. 具有象征意义地 symphony n. a musical work for a large group of instruments 交响乐 theme n. a short simple tune that is repeated and developed in a piece of music 乐曲主题 tour v. to visit for pleasure turnpike n. (AmE) a large road for fast traffic, esp. one that drivers have to pay to use urge n. a strong wish for sth. version n. a slightly different copy of the book VCR n. abbr. for video cassette recorder West Virginia n. 西弗吉尼亚州(US)

第十单元
ambition n. a strong desire for success, power, riches, etc. band n. a group of musicians who play popular music together cashier v. to work as a clerk whose job is to receive and pay out money in a shop, bank, hotel, etc. clarity n. clearness conscience n. 良心 contrast n. a difference between people, ideas or things dime n. a silver coin of the U. S., worth ten cents dismal adj. lacking hope or comfort, showing or causing sadness embrace n. the act of holding sb. close to you as a sign of love emerge v. to come out or appear from somewhere enhance v. to increase good qualities in sb. or sth. errand n. a short trip to do sth. for sb. expand v. to become larger

fantasy n. imagination finery n. beautiful or expensive clothes and jewelry worn for special occasions freshman n. a first-year student at a high school or university frugally adv. carefully in the way of using money, buying only what is necessary giddy adj. feeling a little sick and unable to balance because everything seems to be moving grieve v. to feel extremely sad, esp. when sb. you love has died gypsy n. 吉卜赛人 horn n. a musical instrument 号;管 humble adj. having a low social class or position, not proud indulge v. to let yourself do or have what you want even if it is bad for you 放纵,纵容 intolerable adj. too difficult, unpleasant, annoying, etc. for you to bear lavish adj. A ~ meal is a meal that is large and generous and costs a lot of money. license n. an official paper showing that permission has been given to do sth. 许可证 lumpy adj. 疙瘩不*的 marvel v. to feel great surprise and admiration for mattress n. 床垫 miracle n. 奇迹 miserly adj. a ~ person is a person who hates to spend money onrush n. a strong fast movement forward parlor n. a sitting room where people may receive guests (old-fashioned) quit v. to leave a job retire v. to stop working at the end of one's working life salon n. beauty ~ : a place where you can get your hair cut seek v. to look for or ask for second-rate adj. not very good sentimental adj. too easily affected by tender feelings such as love, sadness, etc. shabby adj. looking old and in bad condition skate n. 冰鞋 v. to move on ice wearing ice-skates smart v. to hurt with stinging pain sorrow n. unhappiness, sadness or grief splendid adj. excellent spree n. a short period of time doing sth. you enjoy stomach n. an organ in the body where food is digested 胃 suffer v. to tolerate or stand suitcase n. a case with flat sides used for carrying clothes when travelling threadbare adj. worn out; in bad condition top-heavy adj. not properly balanced because of too much weight at the top transform v. to completely change the appearance, form or character of sth. esp. in a way that improves it trapped adj. in a bad situation from which you can't escape urge v. to strongly advise sb. to do sth. vague adj. not clear wardrobe n. the clothes that sb. has wistfully adv. sadly and thoughtfully because you want sth. but cannot have it

第十一单元
altitude n. the height of a place above sea level anticipate v. to expect that sth. will happen and be ready for it artery n. a tube that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body 动脉 ashen adj. pale grey like ash brace n. sth. used for supporting cleanse v. to get rid of any dirt from your wound clench v. to hold (fists, teeth, etc.) together tightly cliff n. a high steep face of a rock esp. near the sea 峭壁 Colorado n. 科罗拉多州(U.S.) cross-legged adj. having one leg placed over the other cuff n. 这里指可充气扎紧在手上或脚上的包扎带 detailed adj. with a lot of information given 详细的 discipline v. to teach sb. to obey rules and control their own behaviour disciplined adj. behaving in a controlled way according to strict rules distract v. to make it impossible for sb. to continue what they are doing by making them look at or listen to sth. else ease v. to move sb. slowly, carefully and gently (to a place) emergency n. an unexpected and dangerous situation that must be dealt with immediately; ~ room: 急诊室 endurance n. the power of bearing pain, suffering, etc. with strength and patience exhaustion n. the state of being tired out frame n. 框架 granite n. a hard grey rock used in building 花岗岩 gruesome adj. very unpleasant and shocking, and usually connected with death or injury guarantee n. a formal and firm promise that sth. will happen or will be done 保证 handhold n. a thing or place which a climber can hold on to with his hand I.V. n. abbr. for intra-venous injection 静脉注射 inestimable adj. too great, precious, etc. to be estimated initial adj. of or at the beginning jerk v. to cause sb. to move with a sudden action jut (out) v. to stand (out) from sth. millimeter n. 毫米 nausea n. a feeling of sickness in the stomach 恶心 notorious adj. widely and unfavorably known for some bad quality protrude v. to stick out or jut out from a surface reparable adj. able to be mended 可修补的 rescue n. the act of saving sb. from danger resemble v. to be or look like salesman n. a man whose job is to persuade people to buy his company's goods scramble v. to climb up or over sth. with difficulty, using your hands to help you sensation n. feeling sever v. to cut through sth., separating it into two parts slope n. 山坡;斜坡

stabilize v. to make sth. steady staff n. a group of people who do sth. for an organization stagger v. to move unsteadily, almost falling over surgery n. 外科手术 swallow v. to move your throat as if you were making food or drink go down the mouth because you are nervous sweat n. 汗水 thigh n. the top part of the human leg between the knee and the hip thrust v. to hold out (hands) forcefully and suddenly tissue n. (动植物的)组织 toe n. 脚趾 trail n. a rough path across open country or through a forest vase n. a container used to put flowers in

第十二单元
anthropology n. the scientific study of people, their societies, cultures, etc. arena n. (活动或争斗的)舞台 bird's-eye view (infml) a general view; a view of sth. from high above by-pass v. to ignore; to go round or avoid citizenship n. the state of being a citizen combination n. joining or mixing of two or more things or people communicate v. to exchange opinions, news, information, etc. comparative adj. 比较的 comprehend v. to understand fully comprehension n. understanding compression n. the act of forcing people or things into a small space confession n. 坦白;交代 destiny n. 命运 dung n. 动物粪便 galaxy n. any of the large groups of stars which make up the universe 星系;the Galaxy: 银河系 hostile adj. angry or unfriendly image n. 形象 kinship n. family relationships loyalty n. the quality of being faithful to one's friends, principles, country, etc. 忠诚 miseducated adj. being badly or wrongly educated mutuality n. the state of mutual respect, understanding, support, etc. occupy v. to fill (a space) oxygen n. a gas with no color, smell or taste in the air and necessary for most forms of life on earth persist v. to continue to exist (in spite of the social changes) planet n. a large body in space that moves round a star or the sun, like the Earth 行星 precarious adj. unsafe; likely to fall or become dangerous preference n. by ~: because you like sth. better principal adj. main; most important

productivity n. the amount of goods produced propaganda n. 宣传 reference n. 提到 refined adj. improved; changed religion n. 宗教 respond v. to react to sth. that has been said or done in answer scarcely adv. almost not or almost none at all secure adj. being or feeling safe and protected against danger similarity n. a way in which things or people are similar 相似;相似之处 simplicity n. the state of being simple solar adj. connected with the sun 太阳的 specific adj. Particular superficial adj. on the surface 表面的 supreme adj. highest in degree terrain n. a particular type of land, for example, hilly, rough, etc. 地形;地貌 tribalism n. behavior and attitudes based on strong loyalty to your tribe tribe n. 部落 uniqueness n. the state of being the only one of its type varying adj. different vegetarian adj. not in the habit of eating meat or fish n. a person who does not eat meat or fish visualize v. to form a picture of sth. in your mind; to imagine vital adj. extremely important and necessary for sth. to succeed or exist welfare n. health, comfort, and happiness 福利;幸福;康乐

第十三单元
acre n. a measure of land 英亩 (equal to 6 市亩 a in China) afresh adv. (fml) once more; from the beginning Alabama n. 亚拉巴马州(U.S.) assault n. an attempt to achieve sth. difficult assignment n. a piece of work given to sb. balloon v. to get larger in amount; to increase in number blueprint n. a plan for achieving sth. 蓝图 capital n. money to start a business charity n. an organization that gives help to the poor commute v. to travel regularly a long distance to work contractor n. a person or company that makes an agreement to do work 承包商 corporation n. a company dilapidated adj. old and in very bad condition distribute v. to give to a group of people or organization, esp. in a planned way 分配;分发 donation n. sth. esp. money given to an organization without asking for anything in return 捐款 dubious adj. not sure whether sth. is true or good dwelling n. (fml) a house where people live dynamic adj. full of energy and new ideas, and determined to succeed equity n. 产权 sweat ~: unpaid labor that is invested to start or expand a business

erect v. to build foundation n. 基础 generous adj. showing readiness to give money, help, kindness, etc. Georgia n. 佐治亚州(U.S.) habitat n. the natural home of a plant or animal. Here: the name given to the housing project handle v. to deal with a difficult situation install v. 安装 jolt v. to shock suddenly knack n. (infml) a special skill or ability livestock n. animals kept on a farm luxurious adj. very expensive, beautiful and comfortable Manhattan 曼哈顿 (U.S.) millionaire n. a person who has at least 1,000,000 pounds or dollars; a very wealthy person minimal adj. very small in degree or amount mission n. sth. you feel you must do because it is your duty Mississippi n. 密西西比州(U.S.) mortgage n. an agreement to borrow money from a bank in order to buy a house, with the house belonging to the lender until the money is repaid 抵押贷款 needy adj. having very little food or money passer-by n. a person who happens to pass by a place peek v. to look at sth. quickly, esp. sth. you are not supposed to see plea n. an eager or serious request plumbing n. all the pipes that carry water through in a building plus prep. with the addition of; and also profit n. money gained by selling things or doing business ranch n. (AmE) a very large farm where sheep, cattle or horses are raised recruit v. to find new people to work in a company, join an organization or do a job, etc. rent v. to pay money regularly for the use of a house or room that belongs to sb. else reservoir n. an artificial lake where water is stored before it is supplied to people's houses. Here: a large amount of sth, that has not been used scaled-down adj. less than before scorching adj. very hot share n. (BrE) ownership rights in companies 股份 speedboat n. a small power-driven boat built to go fast stopgap n. sth. that fills a need for a short time until one can replace it with sth. better summon v. to call; to rouse tap v. to draw liquid from teens n. the period of one's life between 13 and 19 thriving adj. Here: successful trader n. a person who buys and sells goods veteran adj. sb. who has had a lot of experience of a particular activity vow v. to make a serious promise whiz n. sb. who is very skilled or successful at sth. wiring n. the network of wires (电线) that form the electrical system in a building

yearn v. to have a strong desire for sth. Zaire n. 扎伊尔(非洲国家名)

第十四单元
aborted adj. stopped because it would be difficult and dangerous to continue 中途失败的;流产 的 accumulation n. the gradual increase in amount until there is a large quantity in one place 积累; 累计 alert v. to make sb. notice sth. important or dangerous apparently adv. obviously; evidently (Note: It usually implies that you are not completely sure.) arc v. to move in a curved shape assemble v. to put all the parts of sth. together in order astronaut n. sb. who travels and works in a spaceship autopilot n. 自动驾驶 bang v. ~ out: (infml) to write sth. in a hurry, esp. on a typewriter bathed adj. 沐浴在(某种光线中) bay n. at ~: under fierce attack, which is impossible to escape from blink n. an act of shutting and opening your eyes quickly v. shut and open your eyes quickly booster n. a rocket used to provide additional power to help to get a spacecraft off the ground(火 箭的)助推器;运载火箭 catastrophic adj. terrible, causing great suffering or many deaths clarify v. to make sure about the facts chatter n. friendly informal conversation check in with sb. 向某人核实 clatter v. ~ out: to come out quickly and noisily (said of the typewritten message) closeup n. (infml) photo taken very near 特写镜头 coherent adj. (of speeches, thought, ideas, etc.) being naturally and reasonably presented in their proper order 连贯的 commentator n. a person who gives opinions or descriptions during an event on radio or television confirm v. to show or find out sth. is definitely true; to make certain 确定;确认 corkscrew v. 螺旋式坠落 countdown n. 倒计时 crackling adj. making a repeated short sharp sound like sth. burning in a fire crew n. all the people working on a ship, plane, or spacecraft debris n. all the pieces that are left after sth. has been destroyed in an accident or explosion dictate v. to say words for sb. else to write down 口述 drafty adj. with currents of air blowing through it 通风的;有穿堂风的 enormity n. extreme seriousness excess adj. additional and not wanted or needed because there is already enough of sth. exhaust n. the gas or steam produced when an engine is working external adj. of the outside; coming from outside fatal adj. extremely serious, often resulting in sb.'s death file v. to keep papers with information on them in a particular place (on the computer in this case) so that you can find it easily

flame n. hot and bright burning gas flare v. to suddenly begin to burn with a bright flame flaw n. a very important weakness that makes sth. certain to fail fleeting adj. (of time or periods) short; passing quickly fuel v. to put in fuel futile adj. having no effect; useless; having no chance of being successful gallon n. 加仑(液量单位) header n. the top of a page, esp. on a computer heater n. a machine for making air or water hotter heartbeat n. the action of your heart as it pumps the blood through your body hydrogen n. 氢 ignite v. to cause or start to burn incredible adj. too strange to be believed; unbelievable indicate v. to suggest; to show journalist n. a news reporter; sb. who writes for newspapers, magazines, TV or radio keyboard n. 键盘 liftoff n. the start of the flight of a space vehicle 升空 lull n. a short period of time in which there is less activity or noise than usual majestically adv. beautifully and impressively minus prep. 减去 momentary adj. lasting a very short time monitor v. to listen, to keep track of, to check 监听;监测 motion n. a movement narrative n. sth. told as a story obit n. =obituary 讣告 option n. sth. offered for choice 选择 orbit n. the path travelled by an object such as a spacecraft which is moving around another much bigger object such as the Earth orbiter n. =space shuttle orbiter 航天飞机的载人载货舱 originally adv. in the beginning pad n. launch ~: a base from which a rocket or missile is sent up into the sky paralyze v. to make sb. unable to move part or all of their body or to feel anything in it periodically adv. happening at regular times; happening repeatedly plume n. a small cloud of smoke which rises up into the air profile n. a short description that gives impressive details about a person 个人简介 puff n. a sudden small movement of wind, air, or smoke punch v. ~ in: to put information into a computer by pressing buttons or keys rattle v. to shake with quick repeated knocking noises resume v. to go back to the position where it was before scanner n. 通常指扫描器, 这里指记者用以监听特定频率上某一场所或某些人群谈话的无线 电接收器 shuttle n. a spacecraft that can fly into space and return to Earth and can be used more than once 穿梭机;航天飞机 site n. a place where sth. important happened or is happening

skyward adv. up in the direction of the sky spacecraft n. a vehicle able to travel in space 宇宙飞船 sparkle v. to shine in small bright flashes spotlight n. a light with a very bright beam which can be directed at sb. or sth. 聚光灯 steam n. the mist formed by boiling water subconsciously adv. having feelings and desires hidden in your mind that you are not aware of 下 意识地 tank n. a large container for storing liquid or gas thunder v. ~ to life: to start working with a loud noise trailer n. a vehicle that can be pulled behind a car used for living and sleeping in during a holiday twin adj. being two things closely resembling each other veer v. to change direction suddenly vertical adj. pointing directly upwards in a line and an angle of 90 degrees with the ground virtually adv. almost wheel v. ~ about: to turn around suddenly

第十五单元
abuse v. to treat sth. so badly that you begin to destroy it array n. an ~ of: a group or collection of things, usually arranged so that you see them all arrow n. a sign shaped like an arrow used to show direction. Here it means the direction time moves astronomy n. the scientific study of the stars atom n. 原子 atomic adj. the adjective of "atom" body clock the system in your body that controls types of behavior which happen on regular times 人体生物钟 (生物钟:biological clock) carbon n. 碳 cathedral n. a very large church under the control of a bishop(主教) cesium n. 铯 charcoal n. 木炭 chemist n. a scientist who specializes in chemistry Chicago n. 芝加哥(U.S.) chronobionics n. 生物时间仿生学 circadian adj. 生理节奏的 circulation n. blood ~: the movement of blood around your body *循环 clockwork adj. very regular; just like a clock complex adj. complicated; made up of many different parts which are closely connected coordinated adj. well-organized; organized in a way that all parts involved work well together 协 调的 crude adj. not skillfully made decay v. (物理)衰减 device n. a piece of equipment, esp. one that is cleverly thought out devise v. to plan or invent a way of doing things dimension n. a measurement in space such as length, height, etc.

Egyptian n. 埃及人 electron n. 电子 elusive adj. difficult to achieve era n. a long period of time in history that is different in some way from other periods erase v. to get rid of; to remove from memory faraway adj. distant gear n. a set of equipment or tools 齿轮(转动装置) gong n. (铜)锣 Gregorian calendar 公历;西历 Harvard n. 哈佛大学 heartbeat n. the action or sound of your heart as it pumps blood through your body historian n. a person who studies or writes history immune adj. ~ system: the system by which your body protects itself against disease 免疫系统 Indian adj. Here: 印第安人的 individual n. one person, considered separately from the rest of the group or society that he or she lives in infinitely adv. very much internal adj. inside your body internalize v. to make a pattern of behaviour part of your nature Italy n. 意大利 lengthy adj. very long lunar adj. connected with the moon or the travel to the moon mismatch n. a combination of things that do not work well together monastery n. a building or buildings in which monks (和尚;僧侣) live Moscow n. 莫斯科 mummy n. a dead body preserved by being wrapped in cloth, esp. in ancient Egypt 木乃伊 nanosecond n. one billionth of a second 纳米秒 naval adj. connected with the navy 海军的 navigator n. a person who directs or controls the course of a ship or a plane Nobel Prize 诺贝尔奖 observatory n. a special building from which scientists watch the moon, stars, weather etc. 天文 台 oscillate v. to keep moving regularly from side to side between two limits perception n. the way that you notice things with your senses Pisa n. 比萨市 (Italy) Pope n. the leader of the Roman Catholic Church 罗马天主教的教皇 precision adj. (only before noun) done or made in an exact way primordial adj. existing at the beginning of time pulse n. 脉搏 reckon. to calculate refinement n. improvement regardless of (infml) without being affected by different situations relativity n. theory of ~:爱因斯坦的相对论 reverse v. to go backwards

rhythm n. a regular repeated pattern of movements or sounds 节奏 riddle n. a mystery; sth. one cannot understand Roman n. 罗马人 satellite n. a machine that is sent into space and goes around the Earth used for radio, television or communication 卫星 signal v. to express or indicate time 显示或表示(时间) Sir n. (放在姓名前)爵士 slave n. a person completely dominated by another thing or person 奴隶 split v. to divide into two or more parts Sumerian n. people in ancient Euphrates in Asia(古代幼发拉底地区) technological adj. related to technology 工艺的 tension n. (a feeling of) nervous anxiety, worry, or pressure theoretical adj. based on theory theorist n. = theoretician; someone who develops ideas within a particular subject that explain why particular things happen or are true 理论家 therefore adv. for that reason; as a result tick v. ~ away: to pass by (said of time) timekeeping n. the recording of time timepiece n. a clock or watch 计时器 track v. to follow the movement ultimately adv. in the end; after everything or everyone else has been done or considered uniform adj. being all the same in all its parts or among all its members unified adj. 统一的 variable n. sth. that may be different in different situations so that you cannot be sure what will happen 可变因数 voyager n. sb. who often makes long and dangerous journeys; Voyager (U.S.)探索者号(飞船) waterwheel n. a wheel turned by a flow of water, used to work machinery width n. size from side to side 宽度


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